- Discovery (1500)
- Chapter 1: The Birth and Growth of Colonial Brazil | Brazil: Five Centuries of Change
- Colonial Brazil
- Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy.
Vespucci, calendar in hand, baptized different points on the coast with the names of the saints on whose days they were discovered. Interest in Brazil waned over the subsequent two decades. The Portuguese began a desultory trade with the Indians for brazilwood, but they failed to discover precious metals in Brazil and thus focused their attention on the lucrative trade with Asia.
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The French, in particular, trespassed on Portuguese claims in South America and shipped the dyewood to Europe. The Portuguese crown made the first systematic effort to establish a government in Brazil in It divided the colony into 15 hereditary captaincies, or fiefs, each extending 50 leagues—i. The captaincy of Pernambuco developed in northeastern Brazil, centred on the town of Olinda. Article Media.
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Still, Portugal's policies tended toward stripping Brazil of its resources rather than developing a truly local economy. Building projects were set in motion, universities as well as a bank and a mint were founded, and investments were made in the arts.
The ports were opened to trade with other nations, especially England, and morale improved throughout the territory.
But Pedro had ideas of his own: he proclaimed Brazil's independence on September 7, , and established the Brazilian empire. Nine years later, following a period of internal unrest and costly foreign wars, the emperor stepped aside in favor of his five-year-old son, Pedro II. A series of regents ruled until , when the second Pedro was 14 and Parliament decreed him "of age.
Pedro II's daughter, Princess Isabel, officially ended slavery in Soon after, disgruntled landowners united with the military to finish with monarchy altogether, forcing the royal family back to Portugal and founding Brazil's first republican government on November 15, A long series of easily forgettable presidents, backed by strong coffee and rubber economies, brought about some industrial and urban development during what's known as the Old Republic.
In his dictatorship ended in another coup.
Chapter 1: The Birth and Growth of Colonial Brazil | Brazil: Five Centuries of Change
He returned to the political scene with a populist platform and was elected president in However, halfway through his term, he was linked to the attempted assassination of a political rival; with the military calling for his resignation, he shot himself. The next elected president, Juscelino Kubitschek, a visionary from Minas Gerais, decided to replace the capital of Rio de Janeiro with a grand, new, modern one symbolic of grand, new, modern ideas that would be built in the middle of nowhere.
True to the motto of his national development plan, "Fifty years in five," he opened the economy to foreign capital and offered credit to the business community. Still, turbulent times were ahead.
Exiled in Uruguay, he died 13 years later. Surrounded by tanks and technocrats, the military brought about the "economic miracle" of the s. However, it did not last. Their pharaonic projects -- from hydroelectric and nuclear power plants to the conquest of the Amazon -- never completely succeeded, and inflation soared. Power was to go peacefully back to civil hands in All hopes were on the shoulders of Tancredo Neves, a year-old democrat chosen to be president by an electoral college.
But, just before his investiture, Neves was hospitalized for routine surgery; he died of a general infection days later. An astounded nation followed the drama on TV.
Trichuris trichiura in a post-Colonial Brazilian mummy.
Bondage in Brazil involved millions of slaves from Africa, and before that, the enslavement of thousands of indigenous peoples; this diversity occasioned much tension and conflict. Similarly, since Portuguese America was a group of colonial territories subject to a monarchical regime located on the other side of the Atlantic, animosities developed between those who lived in the kingdom Reino and those who lived and, more particularly, were born in America. Consequently, numerous social movements gained an anti-metropolitan, even anti-colonial, character without, until the early nineteenth century, mobilizing any significant popular participation.
It is, therefore, important to differentiate between social movements and popular movements; the latter included slave rebellions. Keywords: Brazil , popular movements , Atlantic , slavery , slave rebellions , social movements , Portuguese America , slaves , Africa , social formation.
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